VIDEO ON POLAND. A MUST VIEW
|Appointed 18 February 1946
Term ended 21 July 1951
Parents Adam Stanislaw Sapieha
Grandparents Leon Sapieha
|Installed 18 February 1946
Name Adam Sapieha
Consecration December 17, 1911
Great-grandparents Aleksander Antoni Sapieha
|Predecessor Jan Puzyna de Kosielsko
Successor Eugeniusz Baziak (apostolic administrator)
Other posts Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria Nuova
Died July 21, 1951, Krakow, Poland
Similar People Wladyslaw II Jagiello, Anna Jagiellon, James Cromwell, Wladyslaw IV Vasa, Jadwiga of Poland
Prince Adam Stefan Stanislaw Bonifacy Jozef Sapieha ([ˈadam ˈstefan saˈpʲexa]; 14 May 1867 – 23 July 1951) was a Polish cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Krakow. Between 1922–1923 he was a senator of the Second Polish Republic (Polish Rzeczpospolita). In 1946, Pope Pius XII created him Cardinal.
Sapieha was born in 1867 in the castle of Krasiczyn, then part of the Austrian Empire. His family, originally from Lithuania, were members of the Polish nobility. He was the youngest of the seven children of Prince Adam Stanislaw Sapieha-Kodenski and Princess Jadwiga Klementyna Sanguszko-Lubartowicza, daughter of Wladyslaw Hieronim Sanguszko.
After graduating from gymnasium in Lwow in 1886, he enrolled in the Law Department at the University of Vienna, starting simultaneously law studies at Institut Catholique in Lille. In 1887 on the basis of his certificate from the University of Vienna Sapieha continued studies at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. After two years he passed the examination and returned to Vienna for further studies, where he remained until 1890, obtaining the certificate of completion. In the same year he began theological studies at the University of Innsbruck, and in 1892 signed up for the third year of seminary studies in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lviv.
After returning to the home country in 1897, he was designated vice-rector of the diocesan seminary in Lwow, where he worked until 1901. He resigned because he was discouraged by the imposed rules of education of young priests. After a half-year trip across the United States of America, he was designated a vicar of the St. Nicholas congregation in Lwow in October 1902. In 1905 Sapieha was appointed a papal chamberlain, and sent to Rome where he was a consultant on matters concerning the Roman Catholic Church in Poland, in the annexed territories, the realization of an idea by Lwow Armenian Catholic Archbishop Jozef Teodorowicz (who was the Sapieha’s long-term friend) to have a representative of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland at the Roman Curia.
He was educated at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, where he was also ordained as priest on 1 October 1893 by Bishop Jan Puzyna de Kosielsko (later Bishop of Krakow and Cardinal). Father Sapieha did pastoral work in the Diocese of Lemberg, in whose seminary he served as a faculty member for four years until becoming its rector. In October 1895 he started further studies in Rome, where he obtained a doctorate of civil and canon law at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy. At the same time he studied diplomacy at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles.
Sapieha was appointed Bishop of Krakow on 24 November 1911 and was consecrated by Pope St. Pius X in the Sistine Chapel on 7 December of the same year. In 1915, he established a relief committee for victims of World War I.
After World War I, Sapieha became a vocal opponent of the new concordat negotiated between the Holy See and the newly resurrected Polish state. He argued that the Polish Church should be completely independent of the state and that its primate should be the Archbishop of Warsaw. This attitude led to a conflict with Cardinal Achille Ratti, Pope Benedict XV’s nuncio who himself later became Pope, during the first post-war congress of Polish bishops in Gniezno held 26–30 August 1919. Sapieha thought that the Polish should decide its affairs without outside influence and asked Ratti to leave the conference room. Sapieha was not elevated to the cardinalate by Ratti after he became Pope Pius XI in 1922.
In 1922, Sapieha was elected senator from the Christian Union of National Unity party. He ordered a memorial service and issued a proclamation on the assassination of Gabriel Narutowicz. It was the only speech he delivered as a senator because papal mandate at the time prohibited clergy from holding public office. He resigned on 9 March 1923.
Sapieha was appointed Metropolitan Archbishop in 1925 when the Diocese of Krakow was elevated to the rank of Archdiocese. He received a degree honoris causa from the Jagiellonian University in 1926. In September 1930, after opposition leaders were arrested and placed in confinement at Brest Fortress, Archbishops Sapieha and Teodorowicz strongly criticized the government. Despite this, and other occasional disagreements with the government, Sapieha was awarded the Order of the White Eagle in 1936.
In 1937, Sapieha, who had opposed the Pilsudski regime (sanacja), made the controversial decision to move Pilsudski’s body, within Wawel’s Cathedral, from St. Leonard’s Crypt to the crypt under the Silver Bells.
In 1939 he asked Pope Pius XI to accept his resignation due to age and failing health, but the pope refused. After the death of Pius XI, he repeated his request to the new pope, Pius XII on 19 June 1939. In anticipation of the upcoming war and at Jozef Beck’s instigation he withdrew his resignation.
During World War II, while Primate August Hlond was in France, Sapieha was the de facto head of the Polish church in jurisdictions directly annexed by the Third Reich (primate Hlond was represented by Walenty Dymek, auxiliary bishop of Poznan) and was and one of the main leaders of the nation. One of the most important organisations to which he belonged was the National Council of Welfare, created on the model of Caritas. From the war’s start of the Nazi occupation, he was an independence activist, working with the Polish government-in-exile.
In August 1944, Sapieha was forced to operate the Polish seminary in secret because the Germans began killing seminarians whenever they found them. He moved his students (including the future Pope John Paul II, Karol Wojtyla) into the Bishop’s Palace in Krakow to finish their training during the Nazi Occupation of Poland.
Sapieha’s biographer, Jacek Czajkowski describes the circumstances of the archbishop being invited by Governor Hans Frank to Hitler’s birthday party in April 1942. He told the German official: No! They are not going to change anything, but they will take a photograph of me and write that a Polish bishop arrived at Hitler’s birthday party with best wishes. Tell him I will not come. Another such anecdote recalls when governor Hans Frank ordered the archbishop to hand him the keys to the Wawel Castle. Sapieha replied: But don’t forget to give them back to me when you will be leaving Wawel.
In March 1945, he initiated the publication of Tygodnik Powszechny. He was created Cardinal-Priest, of the title of Santa Maria Nuova, on 18 February 1946. On 1 November 1946 he conferred priestly ordination on Karol Wojtyla in the chapel of his episcopal residence.
After the Kielce pogrom he provided aid for the affected Jews.
Sapieha knew Karol Wojtyla (later John Paul II) was destined to become a priest when a young Karol delivered a welcoming speech during the archbishop’s visit to his school. Some people consider him a mentor of Pope John Paul II. In 1949, he proposed that Stefan Wyszynski, Metropolitan Archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw since 12 November 1948, should be termed Primate of Poland. The following year, 1950, he wrote letters to then-Polish president Boleslaw Bierut protesting Bierut’s repression of the church. Sapieha died on 23 July 1951, and his funeral on 28 July turned into a political demonstration. He was buried in the Wawel Cathedral, in a crypt under the confessional of St. Stanislas.
In the 2005 CBS miniseries Pope John Paul II, Archbishop Sapieha was portrayed by American actor James Cromwell.
It is interesting that Karol Wojtyla, before he became archbishop of Krakow, was the Titular Bishop of Ombi in Egypt.
On this day in 1964, Karol Wojtyla became Archbishop of Krakow in Poland. His elevation to the honor of Archbishop was done by the decision of Pope Paul VI (Giovanni Battista Montini). Karol Wojtyla was also born on the territory of the Archdiocese of Krakow, in 1920, and
*** Was ordained a priest in that archdiocese during the time of Archbishop Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapiecha (who was in fact, by birth, a Polish prince i.e. a prince from the distinguished aristocratic family Sapiecha).
It is interesting that Karol Wojtyla, before he became archbishop of Krakow, was the titular Bishop of Ombi in Egypt. Ombi is an old name for Kom Ombo, where a historically important temple dedicated to the god Sobek (Egyptian god with the head of a crocodile) is located. Kom Ombo is located on the River Nile, a little to the north from the famous Aswan High Dam.
Why was Karol Wojtyla titled a bishop of a diocese in Egypt? This occured because, in the Catholic Church, auxiliary bishops of major dioceses are awarded the title of Bishop of former historic diocese. These used to be called dioceses “in partibus infidelium”, meaning “in the lands of unbelievers”.
THE SHAME OF THE WW2 ALLIES ENGLAND-USA IN RUSSIAS EXECUTION OF UNARMED POLISH OFFICERS-ACADEMICS-GENTRY-ELITE & NOBILITY.
These are also real criminals of world war two. Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin. Cowards & traitors to Poland. Lest we forget. A united Poland is needed & trust not these countries they represent.to defend.. Cowardly fat cowards at best.Killing Poland’s prime minister & the political hierarchy perished by murder & assassination by the allied command.
These videos are some of the horrors revealed in that massacre of Polish citizens
The Katyn massacre, also known as the Katyn Forest massacre (Polish: zbrodnia katyńska, ‘Katyń crime’), was a mass murder of thousands of Polish prisoners of war (primarily military officers), intellectuals, policemen, and other public servants by the Soviet NKVD, based on a proposal from Lavrentiy Beria to execute all members of the Polish Officer Corps. Dated March 5, 1940, this official document was then approved (signed) by the entire Soviet Politburo including Joseph Stalin and Beria. The number of victims is estimated at about 22,000, the most commonly cited number being 21,768. The victims were murdered in the Katyn Forest in Russia, the Kalinin (Tver) and Kharkov prisons and elsewhere. About 8,000 were officers taken prisoner during the 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland, the rest being Poles arrested for allegedly being “intelligence agents, gendarmes, saboteurs, landowners, factory owners, lawyers, priests, and officials.” Since Poland’s conscription system required every unexempted university graduate to become a reserve officer, the Soviets were able to round up much of the Polish intelligentsia, and the Jewish, Ukrainian, and Belarusian intelligentsia of Polish citizenship.
Nazi Germany announced the discovery of mass graves in the Katyn Forest in 1943. The revelation led to the end of diplomatic relations between Moscow and the London-based Polish government-in-exile. The Soviet Union continued to deny the massacres until 1990, when it finally acknowledged the perpetration of the massacre by the NKVD. as well as the subsequent cover-up. An investigation by the Prosecutor’s General Office of the Russian Federation has confirmed Soviet responsibility for the massacres, yet does not classify this action as a war crime or an act of genocide. This acknowledgement would have made necessary the prosecution of surviving perpetrators, which is what the Polish government had requested. The Russian government also does not classify the dead as victims of Stalinist repression, which bars formal posthumous rehabilitation.
After 3 April, 1940, at least 22,436 POWs and prisoners were executed: 15,131 POWs (most or all of them from the three camps) and at least 7,305 prisoners in western parts of Belarus and Ukraine. A 1956 memo from KGB chief Alexander Shelepin to First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev contains incomplete information about the personal files of 21,857 murdered POWs and prisoners. Of them 4,421 were from Kozielsk, 3,820 from Starobielsk, 6,311 from Ostashkov, and 7,305 from Belarusian and Ukrainian prisons. Shelepin’s data for prisons should be considered a minimum, because his data for POWs is incomplete (he mentions 14,552 personal files for POWs, while at least 15,131 POWs “sent to NKVD” are mentioned in contemporary documents).
The Germans assembled and brought in a European commission consisting of twelve forensic experts and their staffs from Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Croatia, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, Slovakia, and Hungary. After the war, all the experts, save for a Bulgarian and a Czech, reaffirmed their 1943 finding of Soviet guilt. The Katyn Massacre was beneficial to Nazi Germany, which used it to discredit the Soviet Union. Goebbels wrote in his diary on 14 April 1943: “We are now using the discovery of 12,000 Polish officers, murdered by the GPU, for anti-Bolshevik propaganda on a grand style. We sent neutral journalists and Polish intellectuals to the spot where they were found. Their reports now reaching us from ahead are gruesome. The Fuehrer has also given permission for us to hand out a drastic news item to the German press. I gave instructions to make the widest possible use of the propaganda material. We shall be able to live on it for a couple weeks.” The Germans had succeeded in portraying the dark side of the Soviet government to the world and briefly raised the spectre of a communist monster rampaging across the territories of Western civilization; moreover, General Sikorski’s unease threatened to unravel the alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union.
The Katyn massacre, also known as the Katyn Forest massacre was a mass murder of thousands of Polish military officers, policemen, intellectuals and civilian prisoners of war by Soviet NKVD, based on a proposal from Lavrentiy Beria to execute all members of the Polish Officer Corps dated March 5 1940
Hey Western Europe remember this ? Or you love red flags,lenin,stalin .Commie murder in world 100mln people and now ……more idiots speaking “We love reds” ,”We love coomie” This is murder.
The Katyn massacre, also known as the Katyn Forest massacre,, was a mass murder of thousands of Polish prisoners of war, intellectuals, policemen, and other public servants by the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union continued to deny the massacres until 1990.
The number of victims is estimated at about 22,000. About 8,000 were officers taken prisoner during the 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland, the rest being Poles arrested for allegedly being “intelligence agents, gendarmes, saboteurs, landowners, factory owners, lawyers, priests, and officials.”
No one has been committed for these war crimes.
Newly declassified U.S. army documents reveal that two American POWs sent secret coded messages to Army intelligence after their 1943 visit to Katyn, pointing to Soviet guilt for the 1940 massacre.
After witnessing rows of corpses in the Katyn forest, on the western edge of Russia, the American POWs told Washington they believed the Nazi claims that Soviets had carried out the killings of 22,000 Polish officers.
Having seen the advanced state of decay of the bodies, the POWs concluded that the killings must have been carried out by the Soviets rather than the Nazis who had only recently invaded the area surrounding the Katyn forest.
The documents shed further light on decades of suppression of Soviet guilt within the U.S. government which began during WWII when the blame for the massacre was being pointed at Nazi Germany. The long-held suspicion is that President Franklin Roosevelt didn’t want to anger Josef Stalin, an ally whom the Americans were counting on to defeat Germany and Japan.
The testimony about the infamous massacre of Polish officers might have lessened the tragic fate that befell Poland under the Soviets, some scholars believe.
Documents released Monday lend weight to the belief that suppression within the highest levels of the U.S. government helped cover up Soviet guilt in the killing of some 22,000 Polish officers and other prisoners in the Katyn forest and other locations in 1940.
The evidence is among about 1,000 pages of newly declassified documents that the United States National Archives is releasing Monday and putting online.
The most dramatic revelation so far is the evidence of the secret codes sent by the two American POWs — something historians were unaware of and which adds to evidence that the Roosevelt administration knew of the Soviet atrocity relatively early on.
Cover up: Secret codes sent by the two American POWs about the massacre¿ something historians were unaware of – adds to evidence that the Roosevelt administration knew of the Soviet atrocity relatively early on
The declassified documents also show the United States maintaining that it couldn’t conclusively determine guilt until a Russian admission in 1990 — a statement that looks improbable given the huge body of evidence of Soviet guilt that had already emerged decades earlier. Historians say the new material helps to flesh out the story of what the U.S. knew and when.
The Soviet secret police killed the 22,000 Poles with shots to the back of the head. Their aim was to eliminate a military and intellectual elite that would have put up stiff resistance to Soviet control. The men were among Poland’s most accomplished — officers and reserve officers who in their civilian lives worked as doctors, lawyers, teachers, or as other professionals. Their loss has proven an enduring wound to the Polish nation.
In the early years after the war, outrage by some American officials over the concealment inspired the creation of a special U.S. Congressional committee to investigate Katyn.
In a final report released in 1952, the committee declared there was no doubt of Soviet guilt, and called the massacre ‘one of the most barbarous international crimes in world history.’
Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/artic…
The Katyn massacre of “Polish nationalists and counter-revolutionaries” had been blamed on the Germans until Boris Yeltsin released a secret memo from Soviet archives dated 5 March 1940 in which Stalin authorised the execution of 25 700 Poles from Kozelsk, Ostashkov and Starobels camps, and from certain prisons of Western Ukraine and Belarus. In this documentary, Polish and Russian historians, investigators and film makers reconstruct the Katyn wood massacre from the available evidence.
Taken from a rare VHS ive owned since the early 90’s.This is part 1 of 4. Check my channel for the rest of the parts.
The Katyn massacre, also known as the Katyn Forest massacre (Polish: zbrodnia katyńska, mord katyński, ‘Katyń crime’; Russian: Катынский расстрел), was a mass murder of Polish nationals carried out by the Soviet secret police NKVD in April–May 1940. It was based on Lavrentiy Beria’s proposal to execute all members of the Polish Officer Corps, dated 5 March 1940. This official document was then approved and signed by the Soviet Politburo, including its leader, Joseph Stalin. The number of victims is estimated at about 22,000, the most commonly cited number being 21,768. The victims were murdered in the Katyn Forest in Russia, the Kalinin and Kharkov prisons and elsewhere. About 8,000 were officers taken prisoner during the 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland, the rest being Polish doctors, professors, lawmakers, police officers, and other public servants arrested for allegedly being “intelligence agents, gendarmes, landowners, saboteurs, factory owners, lawyers, officials and priests.” Since Poland’s conscription system required every unexempted university graduate to become a reserve officer, the NKVD was able to round up much of the Polish intelligentsia, and the Russian, Ukrainian, Tatar, Jewish, Georgian, and Belarusian intelligentsia of Polish citizenship.
The term “Katyn massacre” originally referred specifically to the massacre at Katyn Forest, near the villages of Katyn and Gnezdovo (ca. 19 kilometres (12 mi) west of Smolensk, Russia), of Polish military officers in the Kozelsk prisoner-of-war camp. This was the largest of several roughly simultaneous executions of prisoners of war; the others included executions at the geographically distant Starobelsk and Ostashkov camps, and the executions of political prisoners from West Belarus and West Ukraine, shot at Katyn Forest, at the NKVD headquarters in Smolensk, at a Smolensk slaughterhouse, and at prisons in Kalinin (Tver), Kharkov, Moscow, and other Soviet cities. The Belorussian and Ukrainian Katyn Lists are NKVD lists of names of Polish prisoners to be murdered at various locations in Belarus and Western Ukraine. The modern Polish investigation of the Katyn massacre covered not only the massacre at Katyn forest, but also the other mass murders mentioned above. There are Polish organisations such as the Katyn Committee and the Federation of Katyn Families, which again are inclusive of victims of the various mass murders at the various locations.
Nazi Germany announced the discovery of mass graves in the Katyn Forest in 1943. The revelation led to the end of diplomatic relations between Moscow and the London-based Polish government-in-exile. The Soviet Union continued to deny responsibility for the massacres until 1990, when it officially acknowledged and condemned the perpetration of the killings by the NKVD, as well as the subsequent cover-up.
An investigation conducted by the Prosecutor General’s Office of the Soviet Union (1990–1991) and the Russian Federation (1991–2004), has confirmed Soviet responsibility for the massacres. It was able to confirm the deaths of 1,803 Polish citizens but refused to classify this action as a war crime or an act of genocide. The investigation was closed on grounds that the perpetrators of the massacre were already dead, and since the Russian government would not classify the dead as victims of Stalinist repression, formal posthumous rehabilitation was ruled out. The human rights society Memorial issued a statement which declared “this termination of investigation is inadmissible” and that their confirmation of only 1,803 people killed “requires explanation because it is common knowledge that more than 14,500 prisoners were killed.”
In November 2010, the Russian State Duma approved a declaration blaming Stalin and other Soviet officials for having personally ordered the massacre.
Potent archival images of the aftermath of the Katyn massacre show why this event became such a bitter taboo. As Poland buries its president, can they also finally lay to rest this much deeper wound?
In September 1939 Poland was overrun by the Germans and Russians, yet the Polish fighting spirit remained unbroken. Under the leadership of General Wladyslaw Sikorski, the Free Polish Forces in the West were formed. They were a displaced fighting force, which would exact revenge for the occupation of Poland, fighting first in France, and then alongside British forces in almost every campaign in the desert and Western Europe.
When Hitler invaded Russia, Poland found itself in a new alliance with its former aggressor, but the historical antagonism between the two countries was always lurking.
Tragically, the loyalty and courage of its armies on the battlefield did not win Poland the independence its people hoped for. After 7 years of fighting, many of those Free Poles who returned home from the war were arrested, murdered, or deported by the Soviet troops who now occupied their country. Many never saw their home country again.
The Free Polish Forces will be remembered as men and women who were willing to sacrifice everything to rescue their country. Poland’s democracy and true independence, finally won in 1989, stands as a testimonial to those who gave so much for what seemed like so little.
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Jan III Sobieski (17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696) was one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, from 1674 until his death King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. Sobieski’s 22-year-reign was marked by a period of the Commonwealth’s stabilisation, much needed after the turmoil of the Deluge and Khmelnytsky Uprising. Popular among his subjects, he was also a brilliant military commander, most famous for the victory over the Turks in the 1683 Battle of Vienna. For his victories over the Ottoman Empire, he was dubbed by the Turks the “Lion of Lechistan.”
Poland has a long and colorful royal history. Since the 9th Century Poland was ruled by dukes, high dukes and kings at various times. Sometimes hereditary the Polish monarchy was more often elective, the throne often passing back and forth between competing forces. From 1386 to 1572 the Jagiellon dynasty provided the Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania. After that the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth came into being and was, for a time, a major force in central Europe at one point even threatening to dominate Russia. In 1795 it all ended with the partition of Poland between Prussia, Austria and Russia. During World War I the Germans and Austrians set up a Kingdom of Poland under a regency but after their defeat a new republican Poland was established.
They are usually situated in such picturesque places as Werki, Zwierzyniec, ….. During Lithuanian and Polish rule from 1413, the high-ranking administration ….. the former Sapiecha Palace and Church of Jesus Christ (Stryjkowski, l. c., I, 473).